AWS Notebook

AWS-Amazon Web Services Cloud Practitioner

This is a prerequisite for any of the other courses.

AWS has data centers distributed worldwide and they offer on demand delivery of IT resources, also shared and dedicated resources. This approach allows users to share resources (but the accounts are still isolated at a hypervizor lvl - hypervizor = a component that serves as the main pillar of virtualization in the cloud computing system). The pricing model for this infrastructure is pay as you go.

The infrastructure is organized into a range of different product types:
computing power
data storage
database as a Services
noSql DB, graphDB, Relational DB
And all of this infrastructure can be used on a pay as you go model.

AWS infrastructure is divided into geographic regions. Those geographic regions are divided into availability zones.
e.g. the N.Virginia region is the largest one and supports all of the available AWS services. If we use a smaller region we may encounter problems if it does not support some services.
There is also an AWS GovCloud region and it is for US Government organizations.
There is also a Secret Region (for US Government Intelligence Organizations).

When we choose a region we need to take into consideration the following:
- latency - proximity of the server to customer - costs

Each region has at least 2 availability zones. The zones are physically isolated from eachother. So this provides business continuity for our app. If one availability zone goes down, the infrasturcture in the other availability zone will continue to operate.
The largest region namely N. Virginia has 6 availability zones. The availability zones are connected to eachother through a high speed fiber optic network
Local Zones are located close to large cities, industries and IT centerrs and can provide the lowest latency witihn that specific area. For instance if our business is located in Los Angeles, we will want to have the infrastructure located within that local zone. Local zones operate as an extension of an AWS region and also have multiple availability zone capability for high availability. There are over 100 edge locations that are used for the CloudFront content delivery network. CloudFront can cache content and distribute it on that edge location across the globe for high speed delivery to the end users and it will do that with low latency. It will also provide protection against DDOS attacks.

AWS Wavelength deploys standard AWS compute and storage services to the edge of telecomunication carriers 5G networks. This enables developers to build applications that deliver ultra-low latencies to mobile devices because those applications will be run at the service provider's data center without having to traverse multiple hops across the internet to reach their final destination. This is great for connected vehicles that need low latency for environmental analysis or critical data, for interactive live video streams and live television broadcasts and also for real-time gaming on mobile devices.

AWS Ground Station is a fully managed service that lets you control satellite communications process that data that is received and scale your operations. The way this works is the following:
Contacts which are simply reservations for a ground station antenna are scheduled for when a specific satellite is in proximity to that specific antenna. By doing this you can save up to eighty percent on the cost of the ground station operations by paying only for the actual antenna time that is used and relying upon the global footprint of AWS Ground Stations to download data when needed within proximity of that satellite.

Project Kuiper system which is a subsidiary of Amazon will be launching a proposed constellation of low earth orbit satellites, delivering high speed internet via high performance customer terminal antennas. This will provide high-speed internet to third-world countries (a similar initiative is the one from Starlink )

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing allows developers and IT departments the ability to focus on what matters most and avoid costs like server purchasing maintenance and ongoing capacity upgrades.

There are several different models and deployment strategies that have emerged to help meet the specific needs of these different users. Each type of cloud service and deployment method provides you with different levels of control, flexibility, and management.

Cloud Computing Models:

Infrastructure as a service

-contains the basic building blocks for cloud IT

-this is nuts and bolts stuff so if we want to launch a Linux server and we want to manage that server ourselves, that's how we would do that with infrastructure as a service and we would do that using the Elastic Cloud Compute - EC2

Platform as a Service - PaaS

- AWS takes a little bit more control over the infrastructure (AWS) manages their underlying infrastructure and the hardware and OS (e.g. a Relational DB - AWS provides the OS, the server and everything but we have to do the high level administration of the database. )

Software as a Service - SaaS

- this is a complete product that normally runs inside a browser and it refers to end-user applications (e.g. Office 365 or salesforce)

Serverless Computing

- allows us to build and run applications and services without thinking about the servers
- also referred to as Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) or Abstracted Services (e.g. AWS Simple Storage Service - S3, AWS Lambda , Dynamo DB or Amazon SNS )

Cloud Computing Deployment Models

There are also different models for deploying cloud computing

Complete Cloud Deployment

- the application is fully deployed in the cloud and all parts of it run in the cloud

Hybrid Cloud Deployment

- resources on premise are interconnected with cloud based resources
*this will allow an existing on premises infrastructure to extend and grow into the cloud

On Premises Deployment

- deploying resources completely on-premises using virtualization and resource management tools such as VMware
- it is also known as private cloud

The Amazon management console is a web based interface to AWS

AWS resources can also be accessed through various SDKs for javascript, Java, Python, etc... there are also APIs for AWS. There is also a cli tool for connecting to AWS

AWS Pages
This is the certifications page with information about all the existing certifications
This is the whitepapers page with whitepapers and technical discussions/content authored by AWS
Page describing all AWS Products
Page describing all new AWS Products

AWS Storage services

Simple Service (S3)

- simple storage service designed to store any type of data
-it's a serverless service and we create an S3 bucket and store the data in it
- we upload objects into the bucket (and there's no limit to how much we can store)

Amazon Glacier

- cheapest AWS storage service used for long term archiving data
- data is not readily available as it is in S3 and we can set up rules to migrate old data from S3 to AWS Glacier for long term archiving

Amazon Elastic Search Block Store (EBS)

- a highly available low latency block device service and it is used for attaching to servers that are launched with the Amazon EC2 service (Elastic Compute Cloud) similar to how we attach a drive to a computer at home

Amazon Elastic File System (EFS)

-network-attached storage (meaning multiple servers can access it similarly to how a NAS works on a network at home)

AWS Storage gateway

- provides hybrid storage between on premises environments and the AWS cloud

AWS Snowball

-is a portable data storage deice that can be used to migrate large amounts of data from on-premise environments over to the AWS cloud (data is downloaded on the Snowball device and then that is sent by courrier)

Usecase Examples

1 - Storage Example

In the white there, we've got the AWS cloud. Now we can create a VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) inside that AWS cloud, and that VPC or virtual private cloud is our own private space within the AWS cloud, and that is an impenetrable fortress against attack, and no one will be able to enter our own private space without us, allowing that to happen. Now let's just say we launched two servers in our VPC. Now we want these servers to access to data and somewhere to store that data, and so in a normal environment, you would just add a hard drive to that server. So in the same way, we can attach an Amazon Elastic Block storage device to our servers. So that's great. We've now got high-speed access to our data, but what if we want that data to be available to both of those servers. So here we've got two EBS volumes. What if we want that data to be on only one volume. So as we know from our computer at home, we can't attach a hard drive or a block device hard drive to multiple computers, it just doesn't work like that, so in a situation like that in your home network at home, you could just go out and purchase a NAS or network attached storage device. You would attach it to your network, you would set up your operating system in your desktop computers to have a mount target for that network-attached storage, so when you go to your G drive, or E drive, or F drive, or whatever that may be, it will point to that network-attached storage. In the same way that we can do that with our home network, we can also do the same thing with AWS. Elastic File system is network-attached storage, so with EFS and a mount target for each individual instance, we can enable multiple servers to access the one data source. Now, what if we don't want to worry about mount targets, block devices, and all this sort of stuff? We just want somewhere where we can upload objects to in a similar way that we do with Google drive or something like that, and we also want to have an automated solution that over time, migrates that data over to something more low cost and more long term for archiving. Now, that is where Amazon S3 comes in. We can use Amazon S3 to create a bucket, store objects in that bucket, delete objects, do whatever we want with it. We can also set up a life cycle rule on that bucket, so that over a period of time, as objects age, they can be migrated over to an Amazon Glacier vault, and that will be for long-term archiving. It will still be accessible. It just won't be as readily accessible as the S3 bucket. But the advantage is, that we'll be using the lowest-cost storage that is available on AWS. Now, that S3 bucket will be located in the AWS cloud. It's not located in our VPC. Now remember, we said the VPC Endpoint is our own private space within the AWS cloud, and nothing gets through it without us allowing it to come through, so that is where a VPC Endpoint endpoint comes in. We can create one of those, and that will allow traffic to flow in and out of our VPC specifically for that S3 service.

2 -Hybrid Storage Example

we've got on-site storage in a corporate data center, and we also want to have that stored in the AWS cloud on Amazon S3. Why would we do that? Well, it's great for a disaster recovery solution because we can still have high-speed access to our data in our corporate data center, and at the same time, we're taking advantage of the durability and availability of Amazon S3 as a disaster recovery solution, in the event that our on-site server goes down. So the first problem that we're going to encounter is that this corporate data center may have petabytes of data, and to transfer that via the internet to the AWS cloud is not going to be practical. It's just too much, and it's going to take too long. To solve this problem, AWS can send out to us, a snowball device, and that is a high-capacity device that can store petabytes of data. We can upload our data to that snowball device, and then we can send that back to AWS, and they will upload that for us into that Amazon S3 bucket. Then we've got to find a solution for making sure that the data in our corporate data center is synced with the S3 bucket. Now that's where the AWS Storage Gateway comes in, and that will orchestrate all of that syncing for us, and so if you've got a high-speed link between your corporate data center and the AWS cloud, which is what you can have with the AWS Direct Connect service, you can have the storage gateway orchestrate and manage all of that syncing for you. It will get your popular content, your content that is frequently accessed, and it will store copies of that on-site in your on-site storage, but at the same time, it will also store all of that data in the Amazon S3 bucket for you, then you've got the advantage of having all of the durability and availability of Amazon S3 as a disaster recovery solution, but at the same time, you've got high-speed access to your data which is also stored on the corporate data center.

Database Services in AWs

Amazon RDBMS is a fully-managed database service that makes it easy to launch database servers in the AWS cloud and scale them when required. The RDS service can launch servers for MySQL, including variations of the MySQL database engine with MariaDB and Amazon's own enterprise version of MySQL called Amazon Aurora. Standard PostgreSQL is also available and also available as Amazon's Enterprise Aurora PostgreSQL. Microsoft SQL server and Oracle are also available.

Dynamo DB is AWS's NoSQL database as a service. It's a serverless service like Amazon S3, and as such, you don't need to worry about the underlying infrastructure behind it. AWS takes care of everything for you, and it provides high speed, extremely low latency performance.

Amazon redshift is a fast, fully managed petabyte-scale data warehouse that is based upon the PostgreSQL database engine. If you're looking for a big data storage solution, Redshift is perfect for this.

Amazon Elastic Cache is an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud. It allows you to retrieve information from fast, fully managed in-memory caches, instead of relying for slower disk-based databases.

The AWS DB migration service orchestrates the migration of databases over to AWS easily and securely. It can also migrate data from one database engine type to another totally different database engine type. For example, you can use it to migrate from Oracle over to Amazon Aurora.

Amazon Neptune is a fast, reliable, fully-managed graph database service. It has a purpose-built, high-performance graph database engine optimized for storing billions of relationships and clearing the graph with millisecond latency.

DB usecase example


we've got our corporate data center, and inside of our corporate data center, we've got an on-site Oracle database. Now, let's just say that that Oracle database it's old, it's worn out, it's outgrown its capacity, and it needs to be replaced. Now you've done a total cost of ownership analysis on the situation, and you've identified that it is far more cost-effective to host that database on the AWS cloud. So the first thing that you are going to want to do is to launch an RDS database instance. Now, let's say you want to further reduce your costs by not having to pay for the Oracle licensing fee, and what you can do is you can launch an Amazon Aurora database instance, and that will be running either the MySQL or the PostgreSQL open-source database engines and by doing that you're not going to be paying for a licensing fee. The disadvantage of that is that some of the fields of data that are located in that Oracle database may not be compatible with the Amazon Aurora MySQL or PostgreSQL fields, and what you're going to need to do is that when you take that data out of your Oracle database, you're going to have to change it and manipulate it to suit the Amazon Aurora database, and that is where the AWS database migration service comes in. You can define a database migration workflow by specifying the source database, the target database, and any operations on that data that need to occur during that migration of that data. Once you've done that, you can then run the database migration job, and that will look after everything for you. It will migrate that data from that on-site Oracle database to your Amazon Aurora database, and at the same time, it will be giving you feedback through the AWS management console as a dashboard on the performance of how that job is actually going, because that job could take hours, it could take days, it could take weeks depending on how big your Oracle database is, and how fast your connection to the AWS cloud is. And it will also give you feedback of any errors and alert you to any problems that may occur. Once our RDS instance is up and running and the data has been migrated over, then we can look at launching a web server that can receive traffic and requests from the outside world over the internet, and then get that data that is required from the RDS database, and then return that back to the requester. Now, let's just say we're getting a lot of requests from the outside world and a lot of that is for the same data. What we can look at doing is getting all of our regularly accessed content and putting it into an ElastiCache node, and because the ElastiCache node is serving those requests from its memory, not from a solid-state drive as is the case of the RDS service, it will be returning that very quickly, and it will be at a lower cost. Now, we need to take into consideration that the costs of storing data in memory is more expensive than storing that data on a solid-state drive, and so we need to make sure that ElastiCache node only contains regularly accessed data. So the way that we would do that is that requests would come in from the outside world to the web server. The web server could then check to see whether that data is in the ElastiCache node. If it is in the ElastiCache node, it will simply grab that data and then forward it back to that requester. Let's just say a request comes in and that data is not in the ElastiCache node, so then the web server will go to the RDS database instance, it will get that data if it's there, and after it has got that data it will then write that data into the ElastiCache node, and at the same time, it will define a time to live or a TTL for that specific data, and once that TTL has expired, if there are no further requests for that data within that TTL, then that data will be removed automatically by the ElastiCache service from the elastication node. And by doing that, all of that data that's in the elastication node will be regularly accessed data that has been accessed within that time to live period. Now, let's just say a request comes into that web server for either writing to or deleting from that RDS database, so the way that would work is that the request would come into the web server, the web server would then either delete or write to the RDS database. If it is deleting from the database, then it would also delete from the ElastiCache node as well. If it's writing to the database, then it would also write to the ElastiCache node, and again, it would define a time to live period, so that if that data is not requested within that time to lift period, then it will automatically be re removed from the ElastiCache node by the ElastiCache service.

AWS Compute Services

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud , or EC2 for short, provides virtual servers in the AWS cloud. You can launch one or thousands of instances simultaneously and only pay for what you use. There's a broad range of instant types with varying compute and memory capabilities, and those will be optimized for different use cases. Amazon EC2 Autoscalingallows you to dynamically scale your Amazon EC2 capacity up or down automatically according to conditions that you define. It can scale up or down by launching or terminating instances based on demand. It can also perform health checks on those instances and replace them when they become unhealthy. it's the easiest way to launch virtual servers running applications in the AWS cloud. AWS will provision everything you need, including DNS management and storage, to get you up and running as quickly as possible.

Amazon Elastic Container Service , or ECS for short, is a highly scalable high-performance container management service for Docker containers. The containers, they will run on a managed cluster of EC2 instances.

AWS Lambda is a serverless service and lets you run code in the AWS cloud without having to worry about provisioning or managing that service. You just upload your code, and AWS takes care of everything for you.

Web server usecase (hosting with EC2)

Here we have the AWS cloud and our Virtual Private Cloud or VPC located inside that, and remember, a VPC is our own private space within the AWS cloud, and no one can enter that unless we allow them to enter it.
We can launch an EC2 instance, and that can be running our web application, for example, WordPress, so what happens if this single EC2 instance becomes overwhelmed by demand? For example, we might have released a new product, and our WordPress application cannot deliver the web pages quickly enough to satisfy that. What we could do is that we could tear down that instance and put in a bigger instance that could handle that demand, and that is called vertical scaling, and that used to be older age, 10, 20 years ago. But the problem is that it takes time to do that, and while we're doing that, our application is not running. And also, what happens when the demand goes back down again? Do we have to tear that down and then put in a smaller instance, and what happens if that happens every day? What happens if that happens every hour? It's just not going to be economical for us to do that. What we can do, is that we can horizontally scale, and we do that by adding more instances, and as demand goes up, we add more instances, and as demand goes down, we terminate those instances, and that way, we still have continuity of our application. Our Application will always be running because there's always going to be at least one EC2 instance to look after the demand. One problem with this architecture is that it has multiple endpoints for our web server, and that's not practical because customers are not going to go to one endpoint until that stops working and then go to another one and then another one. It's just not going to work like that, and obviously, their bookmarks in their browser are not going to be valid, so we need a way of having one single endpoint for that web application that our customer can go to and then having a way of distributing those requests to a EC2 instance that is available. That is where Elastic Load Balancing comes in, so it can receive traffic from our end users, and it will distribute that traffic to an EC2 instance that is available, so a request will come in, it will distribute it to an available EC2 instance. Another request will come in, and it will distribute it to a different EC2 instance that is available, and it will balance the load across those EC2 instances, and if one of those EC2 instances becomes unhealthy, it will file a health check with the Elastic Load Balancer, and then the Elastic Load Balancer will no longer send traffic to that unhealthy EC2 instance. But what happens if that demand is only for a short period of time, for example, half an hour? What do we do then? It's not going to be practical for us to terminate instances when demand goes down and then launch instances manually when that occurs. We can't do that every hour. It's not going to be practical, and that's where the Auto-Scaling service comes in. It can launch EC2 instances automatically when the demand on those instances increases, and it can terminate automatically EC2 instances when the demand on those instances goes down. It can also perform health checks on those instances, and if one of those instances becomes unhealthy for whatever reason, it can replace that instance with a healthy instance, and it will do that automatically without you having to do anything at all.

networking and Content Delivery

Amazon CloudFront is a global content delivery network or CDN for short, that securely delivers your frequently requested content to over 100 edge locations across the globe, and by doing this, it achieves low latency and high transfer speeds for your end-users. It also provides protection against DDoS attacks.
Virtual Private Cloud or VPC for short, lets you provision a logically isolated section of the AWS cloud, and you can launch AWS resources in that virtual network that you yourself define, and this is your own personal private space within the AWS cloud, and no one can enter it unless you allow them to enter it.
AWS Direct Connect is a high speed dedicated network connection to AWS. Enterprises can use it to establish a private connection to the AWS cloud in situations where a standard internet connection won't be adequate.
AWS Elastic Load Balancing , or ELB for short, automatically distributes incoming traffic for your application across multiple EC2 instances and also in multiple availability zones, so if one availability zone goes down, the traffic will still go to the other availability zone, and your application will continue to deliver responses to requests. It also allows you to achieve high availability and fault tolerance by distributing traffic evenly amongst those instances, and it can also bypass unhealthy instances.
Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable domain name system or DNS for short, and it can handle direct traffic for your domain name and direct that traffic to your back-end web server.
Amazon API gateway is a fully managed service that makes it easy for developers to create and deploy secure application programming interfaces or APIs at any scale. It handles all of the tasks involved in accepting and processing up to hundreds of thousands of concurrent API calls. It's a serverless service, and as such, you don't need to worry about the underlying infrastructure. AWS looks after everything for you.

Use case EC2 instances with CDN and custom domain

So let's have a look at an example of how we can use these networking services of AWS. So here we've got the architecture that we looked at before in the compute section, but one thing we didn't mention was availability zones. So let's just say that we've launched that architecture in a single availability zone. What happens if that availability zone goes down? What happens to our traffic? Our traffic has nowhere to go, and our application stops delivering responses to requests. That is why it's always desirable to have our architecture distributed across multiple availability zones. That way, if one availability zone goes down, the other one will continue to operate, and the infrastructure within that other availability zone will continue to respond to requests.
We can launch EC2 instances in multiple availability zones, and our Elastic Load Balancing service can distribute that traffic across multiple availability zones as well. So if one availability zone goes down, the Elastic Load Balancer will continue to distribute traffic to the availability zone that is still healthy and to those instances in that availability zone that are still healthy as well. So let's just say our application running on these EC2 instances is a WordPress web server, and that contains lots of images and lots of video that is static content. It's not really changing that much, and it's not efficient for us to continue to keep delivering that from our EC2 instances. We would like somewhere to put that where it can be delivered with high speed and low latency and to take the load off our EC2 instances. That is where the CloudFront content delivery network or CDN comes in, so we can get these large images and large videos that are not really changing that often, and we can put that in a cloud front distribution, and CloudFront will cache that and distribute that across hundreds of edge locations across the globe. So when your end-user requests that video or those images, it will be delivered to them with really high speed and low latency, and at the same time, it's going to take the load off your EC2 instances and is going to significantly reduce your costs. At the same time, dynamic content that is changing regularly, CloudFront can forward those requests over to the Elastic Load Balancer, which will then forward them to an EC2 instance. So that way, you have the best of both worlds, you have dynamic content delivered as a dynamic content, and at the same time, you have these large videos and images that aren't really changing that often delivered very rapidly. Now that CloudFront service or that CloudFront distribution will have its own DNS name that we can put into a browser, and we can directly access that. The problem with that is that DNS name for that CloudFront distribution will be something very complicated and just won't mean anything to our end user at all, so we would prefer to have our end-user type in a domain name and have the request for that domain name forwarded to that CloudFront service. As you can see here, we've got, and that is where Route 53 domain name service can come in, so Route 53 will grab those requests for your domain,, and it will forward those requests over to the CloudFront service, and the CloudFront service will handle it from then on.

2nd example Corporation architecture Example

So let's just say we work for a large enterprise that has its own corporate data center, and the reason it's got its own corporate data center is because that is located where the employees work, and we don't want our employees to be slowed down by a network. We want them to be able to work efficiently, but at the same time, we have resources on the AWS cloud that those employees also need to access, so we need some way of having a high-speed connection between ourcorporate data center and the AWS cloud, and that is where the AWS Direct Connect service comes in and that can provide a very high-speed fiber-optic network between our corporate data center and the AWS cloud, and that is completely private. Okay, so that's a very complicated architecture, and don't be too concerned if that's very overwhelming because if you're going on to become a cloud practitioner, you're not going to need to really be able to produce this yourself. As an associate-level certification, that is a different story. You'd be expected to create this yourself, but cloud practitioner, you'll need to know what these services do. You'll need to know that Route 53 will forward request for your domain name to a back-end endpoint. CloudFront will distribute your content to hundreds of edge locations across the globe. An lastic Load balancer will receive requests and distribute those requests to multiple instances across multiple availability zones. Virtual Private Cloud is your private space within the AWS cloud. The AWS Direct Connect a high-speed fiber-optic network connection between an on-premises corporate data center and the AWS cloud.

AWS Management Services

CloudFormation allows you to use a text file to define your infrastructure and to use this text file to deploy resources on the AWS cloud. This allows for defining of your infrastructure as code, and you can manage your infrastructure with the same version control tools that you can use to manage your code.
The AWS Service Catalog allows enterprises to catalog resources that can be deployed on the AWS cloud. This allows an enterprise to achieve common governance and compliance for its IT resources by clearly defining what is allowed to be deployed on the AWS cloud. AWS Cloudwatch is a monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and applications that are deployed on the AWS cloud. It can be used for triggering scaling operations, or it can also be used for providing insight into your deployed resources.
AWS Systems Manager provides a unified user interface that allows you to view operational data from multiple AWS services and to automate tasks across those AWS resources. That helps to shorten the time to detect and resolve any operational problems.
AWS CloudTrail monitors and logs AWS account activity, including actions taken through the AWS management console, the AWS software development kits, the command line tools, and other AWS services, so this greatly sympathize security and analysis of the activity of users of your account.
AWS Config enables you to assess, audit, and evaluate the configurations of your AWS resources. This greatly simplifies compliance auditing security analysis, change management and control, and also operational troubleshooting.
AWS OpsWorks provides managed instances of chef and puppet. Chef and puppet can be used to configure and automate the deployment of AWS Resources.
AWS Trusted Advisor is an online expert system that can analyze your AWS account and the resources inside it, and then it can advise you on how to best achieve high security and best performance from those resources.

Intro to Analytics and machine Learning

Amazon Elastic MapReduce , or EMR for short, is AWS Hadoop framework as a service. You can also run other frameworks in Amazon EMR they integrate with Hadoop, such as \ Apache Spark (analytics engine) , Apache Hive (data warehouse) , Apache HBase (noSQL DB) , PrestoDB (SQL DB) and Apache Flink (SQL engine).
Data can be analyzed by Amazon EMR in several data stores, including Amazon S3 and Amazon DynamoDB .
Amazon Athena allows you to analyze data stored in an Amazon S3 bucket using your standard SQL statements.
Amazon FinSpace is a petabyte scale data management, and analytics service purpose-built for the financial services industry. FinSpace also includes a library of over 100 financial analysis functions.
Amazon Kinesis allows you to collect, process, and analyze real real-time streaming data.
Amazon QuickSight is a business intelligence reporting tool. Similar to Tableau , or if you're a java programmer, similar to BERT , and it is fully managed by AWS. Amazon CloudSearch is a fully managed search engine service that supports up to 34 languages. It allows you to create search solutions for your website or application.
Amazon OpenSearch is a fully managed service for's ElasticSearch framework. This allows high-speed crawling and analysis of data that is stored on AWS. it was formally called Amazon Elasticsearch.

Machine Learning Searvices

Amazon Deeplens is a deep learning-enabled video camera. It has a deep learning software development kit that allows you to create advanced vision system applications.
Amazon SageMaker is AWS flagship machine learning product. It allows you to build and train your own machine learning models and then deploy them to the AWS cloud and use them as a back end for your applications.
Amazon Rekognition provides deep learning-based analysis of video and images.
Amazon Lex allows you to build conversational chatbots. These can be used in many applications, such as first-line support for customers.
Amazon Polly provides natural-sounding text to speech.
Amazon Comprehend can use deep learning to analyze text for insights and relationships. This can be used for customer analysis or for advanced searching of documents.
Amazon Translate can use machine learning to accurately translate text to a number of different languages.
Amazon Transcribe is an automatic speech recognition service that can analyze audio files that are stored in Amazon S3 and then return the transcribed text.

Intro to Security, Identity and Compliance

Security, Identity and Complicante services are a very important category of AWS Services and there is a very broad selection of them.

AWS Artifact is an online portal that provides access to AWS security and compliance documentation, and that documentation can be readily available when needed for auditing and compliance purposes.
AWS Certificate Manager issues SSL certificates for HTTPS communication with your website. It integrates with AWS services such as Route 53 and CloudFront, and the certificates that are provisioned through AWS Certificate Manager are completely free.
Amazon Cloud Directory is a cloud-based directory service that can have hierarchies of data in multiple dimensions. Unlike conventional LDAP-based directory services (LDAP-Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) that can only have a single hierarchy. AWS Directory Service is a fully managed Microsoft active directory service in the AWS cloud.
AWS CloudHSM is a dedicated hardware security module in the AWS cloud. This allows you to achieve corporate and regulatory compliance while at the same time greatly reducing your costs over using your own HSM - Hardware Sercurity Module in your own infrastructure.
Amazon Cognito provides sign-in and sign-up capability for your web and mobile applications. You can also integrate that sign-up process with external OAuth providers such as Google and Facebook, and also Saml 2.0 - Security Assertion Markup Language providers as well.
AWS Identity and Access Management , or IAM for short, allows you to manage user access to your AWS services and resources in your account. Users and groups of users have individual permissions that allow or deny access to your resources.
AWS Organizations provides policy-based management for multiple AWS accounts. This is great for large organizations that have multiple accounts, and they want to manage those and the users that use those accounts centrally.
Amazon Inspector is an automated security assessment service. It can help to identify vulnerabilities or areas of improvement within your AWS account.
AWS Key Management Service , or KMS for short, makes it easy to create and control encryption keys for your encrypted data, and it also uses hardware security modules to secure your keys. It's integrated well with AWS services such as Amazon S3 , Resdshift, and EBS. AWS Shieldprovides protection against distributed denial of service or DDoS, for short, protection against DDoS attacks. The standard version of AWS Shieldis implemented automatically on all AWS accounts.
Web Application Firewall , or WAF for short, is a web application firewall that sits in front of your website to provide additional protection against common attacks such as SQL injection and cross-side scripting. It has different sets of rules that can be used for different applications.

Intro to Developer, Media, Mobile, Migration, Business, IoT

AWS Cloud9 is an integrated development environment running in the AWS cloud. It allows you to deploy servers directly to AWS from an integrated development environment. We'll be using Cloud9 extensively if you go on to the developer associate pathway with Backspace Academy.
AWS Codestar makes it easy to develop and deploy applications to AWS. It can manage the entire CI/CD pipeline for you. It has a project management dashboard, including an integrated issue tracking capability powered by Atlassian Jira software.
AWS X-Ray makes it easy to analyze and debug applications. This provides you with a better insight to the performance of your application and the underlying services that it relies upon.
AWS CodeCommit is a git repository just like GitHub, and it's running in the AWS cloud.
AWS CodePipeline is a continuous integration and continuous delivery service, or CI/CD for short. It can build, test, and then deploy your code every time a code change occurs.
AWS CodeBuild compiles your source code runs tests and then produces software packages that are ready to deploy on AWS.
AWS CodeDeploy is a service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services, including Amazon EC2, AWS Lambda, and even instances that are running on-premises. We'll be using CodePipeline , CodeBuild , and CodeDeploy quite a bit. If you're going on to do the developer associate pathway with Backspace Academy, we'll be creating a fully integrated CI/CD pipeline that will automatically package node npm packages and run tests using Mocha before deploying to an AWS environment.
AWS recently acquired a media production services company called Elemental, and as a result, there are some very high-quality broadcast media services available on AWS. Elemental MediaConvert is a file-based video transcoding service for converting video formats for video-on-demand content.
MediaPackage prepares video content for delivery over the internet. It can also protect against piracy through the use of digital rights management.
MediaTailor inserts individually targeted advertising into video streams. Viewers receive streaming video with ads that are personalized for them.
AWS Elemental MediaLive is a broadcast-grade live video processing service for creating video streams for delivery to televisions and internet-connected devices.
Elemental MediaStore is a storage service in the AWS cloud that is optimized for media. And finally,
Amazon Kinesis Video Streams streams video from connected devices through to the AWS cloud for analytics machine learning and other processing applications.

Mobile Services

AWS Mobile Hub allows you to easily configure your AWS services for mobile applications in one place. It generates a cloud configuration file which stores information about those configured services.
AWS Device Farm is an app testing service for Android, iOS and web applications. It allows you to test your app against a large collection of physical devices in the AWS cloud. And finally,
AWS AppSync is a GraphQL backend for mobile and web applications. If you're a developer and you don't know what GraphQL is, then make sure you go out and find out because it is absolutely revolutionizing the way we think about data.

Migration services

AWS Application Discovery Service gathers information about an enterprise's on-premises data centers to help plan migration over to AWS. Data that is collected is retained in an encrypted format in an AWS Application Discovery Service datastore.
AWS Database Migration Service orchestrates the migration of databases over to the AWS cloud. You can also migrate databases with one database engine type to another totally different database engine type. For example, you can migrate from Oracle over to AWS Aurora.
AWS Server Migration Service can automate the migration of thousands of on-premise workloads over to the AWS cloud. This reduces costs and minimizes the downtime for migrations. AWS Snowball is a portable petabyte-scale data storage device that can be used to migrate data from on-premise environments over to the AWS cloud. You can download your data to the Snowball device and then send it to AWS, who will then upload that to a storage service for you.

Business & Productivity services

Amazon WorkDocs is a secure, fully managed file collaboration and management service in the AWS cloud. The web client allows you to view and provide feedback for over 35 different file types, including Microsoft Office file types and PDF.
Amazon WorkMail is a secure managed business email and calendar service.
Amazon Chime is an online meeting service in the AWS cloud. It is great for businesses for online meetings, video conferencing, calls, chat, and to share content both inside and outside of your organization.
Amazon WorkSpaces is a fully managed secure desktop as a service. It can easily provision streaming cloud-based Microsoft Windows desktops.
Amazon AppStream is a fully managed secure application streaming service that allows you to stream desktop applications from AWS to an HTML5 compatible web browser. This is great for users who want access to their applications from anywhere.

IoT Services

AWS IoT AWS IoT AWS IoT is a managed cloud platform that lets embedded devices such as Microcontrollers and Raspberry Pi to securely interact with cloud applications and other devices.
Amazon FreeRTOS is an operating system for microcontrollers such as the microchip PIC32 that allows small, low-cost, low-power devices to connect to AWS Internet of Things.
AWS Greengrass is a software that lets you run local AWS Lambda functions, and messaging data caching sync, and machine learning applications on AWS IoT connected devices.AWS Greengrass extends AWS services to devices so they can act locally on the data they generate while still using cloud-based capabilities.

AWS Gaming services

Amazon Gamelift allows you to deploy, scale and manage your dedicated game servers in the AWS cloud.
Amazon Lumberyard (deprecated for now), you can see there we've got some images of some pretty cool stuff. It's a game development environment and cross-platform triple aaa game engine on the AWS cloud.

Highly Available and Fault Tolerant Architecture

Elastic Beanstalkis one of AWS's deployment services, and it allows you to deploy your applications to complex architectures on AWS, and it does this without you having to worry about the underlying architecture that is behind that. Elastic Beanstalk looks after everything for you, and you just need to worry about writing your code.
We'll also talk about how Elastic Beanstalk can create highly available and fault-tolerant architectures and what that actually means, and then finally, we'll look at the different deployment options that are available on Elastic Beanstalk. Elastic Beanstalkit.
It's been around for quite some time, was first launched in 2011. It allows you to quickly deploy and manage applications on environments, and those environments are launched for you without you having to worry about how it all works. It'll automatically handle capacity provisioning. It'll launch a load balancer for you, if you need that. It'll take auto-scale for you, and it can also implement health monitoring. So that if one of these instances that are launched becomes unhealthy, it can replace those automatically for you. If you need to change your code after you've deployed it, it's quite easy to upload new versions of that code, and that can be done through the console or the command-line interface, and also, it complete environments can also be redeployed if need be. Your application that you're deploying could be a Docker Container. It could be raw code. It could be Node.js, Java, .NET, PHP, Ruby, Python, or Go.
You just supply your code and Elastic Beanstalk will deploy that for you, and it will provision that Node.js or whatever environment for you automatically, or it could be a server such as Apache, Nginx Passenger, or IIS - Internet Information Service.
The Elastic Beanstalk process starts with us going through an application creation process, where we will first off upload a version of our software or our code or whatever it is, and then Elastic Beanstalk will launch an environment and that will consist of EC2 instances, or it could be a single EC2 instance. It could be a multi-az environment, but we define that for Elastic Beanstalk, and it will do that automatically for us. From there, we will have our environment launched, and our code will be running on that environment. Now, if we find that we need to deploy a new version of that code, we can deploy that to that existing environment, or we can create a whole new environment, it doesn't really matter, so if we deployed it to our existing environment, then when that environment has gone through that update process, and the new version is deployed and running, then the environment will feedback to the application to notify that that new version of your application is actually running. One of the big advantages of Elastic Beanstalk is it can create a highly available and fault tolerant architecture without us having to worry about how to actually do that.
So what is a highly available and fault tolerant architecture.
So here we've got the AWS cloud, and as we know, it's divided up into regions, and those regions are divided up into availability zones, so if we have our architecture distributed across multiple availability zones, if one of those availability zones goes down, our infrastructure will still continue to operate and serve requests.
Now our virtual private cloud that will span the entire region, so it will span multiple availability zones, and so what we can do is that we can launch instances into both of those availability zones, and that's going to give us high availability if one of those availability zones goes down.
Now in order for our architecture to respond to spikes in demand or increases in demand because an availability zone goes dow we can launch our instances using an auto-scaling group, so if demand on one of those or a group of instances increases, the auto-scaling group will add instances to accommodate that and vice versa if the demand goes down, we will reduce our number of EC2 instances And that allows for elasticity in our design.
And finally, to receive requests from the outside world and to distribute those requests to those multiple instances, we're going to need an Elastic Load Balancer to do that, and that will also have the advantage of conducting health checks on our instances, so that if communication breaks down between the Elastic Load Balancer and our EC2 instance then our auto-scaling group will automatically add additional instances and that creates fault tolerance in our architecture. Just the same as you've got a number of options available for architecture that you're deploying to, such as a single EC2 instance or a highly available and fault-tolerant architecture across multiple availability zones, you've also got a number of different deployment options that you can use, so for example, if you've got 20 EC2 instances an all at once deployment will deploy those 20 EC2 instances all at once. The downside of that is going to be that while that is occurring, your architecture won't be able to respond to requests, so that's obviously not a good thing.
So another option there is to do a rolling deployment, and that will deploy your application to a single batch at a time, so what that means is that if you've got 20 EC2 instances, it can deploy that to say two at a time, so you're not going to be down by much, you're just going to be down from 20 instances down to 18 instances, but your architecture will still be responding to requests. You can also do a rolling with an additional batch, so what that will do is if you've got again 20 EC2 instances, it will temporarily increase to 22 while you're doing those two deployments across those two EC2 instances, and that way, you're still going to have your capacity at 20, which is what you have designed for.
The other option there is an immutable deployment, and that is a bit of a variation of the all at once, so it's still doing an all at once deployment across your 20 EC2 instances, but while that's going on, it's going to deploy another 20 EC2 instances, so temporarily you're going to have 40 EC2 instances, so it's going to double up a lot on your capacity, but through that period where your environment is being deployed or your new version or whatever is being deployed to that environment, you're not going to be suffering any downtime.
And finally, we've got blue-green deployments, and they will have two environments that be running your application under the one Elastic Beanstalk application, and so what that is, you will have a blue environment and a green environment. One of those could be a development environment, and the other one could be your production environment. So when you get to the stage where your development environment is ready to go to be deployed, to deploy that, all you simply need to do is to switch over from one environment to the other environment, and then your old environment will then become your new development environment, and so that is very straightforward with the Elastic Beanstalk because what it does. It will simply allow you to switch the domain names for those two environments automatically for you, and so that makes sure that your changeover doesn't involve any downtime for returning of requests.

AWS Command Line Interface

We can connect to our AWS services and resources using a command-line interface, so instead of having to use the AWS management console as we've done before, we can use text commands to achieve a lot of what we would normally do with that graphical user interface.
We'll start off by looking at the back end service that makes this happen, and that is the AWS application programming interface or API for short. Then we'll look at the number of different command-line interface applications that we can install on our computer that will allow remote access to those services and resources. We'll also look at the AWS Cloud9 service, and we'll discuss why I primarily use this for anything to do with the command-line interface and the security concerns around not using AWS Cloud9 , and finally, we'll finish up by having a lab on using the Cloud9 service with the command line interface.
When you're using the AWS management console like we've done in the past, AWS uses a application programming interface to enable that communication between your remote computer and the AWS services and resources, so how that works is that the AWS management console that you've been using is simply an application that is running on your browser, and it is sending HTTP calls backwards and forwards to this application programming interface back end on AWS.
Now the documentation is available for the AWS API for many services, for example, for the S3 API , for the EC2 query API, but not for everything, so if you wanted to create your own application and there wasn't a software development kit for that language you're using. I can't imagine what language that would be because there's certainly a very broad range of software development kits that are available, but it is possible for you to send HTTP calls to the API provided you have that that authentication done beforehand to actually do that.
So it provides that back-end mechanism for that communication, and it's utilized again by the AWS management console, and we'll also use it with the AWS command-line interface, so that again is an application that's running on your remote computer that will be sending HTTP calls to this API back end. Also there are a number of software development kits that wrap the API up into libraries that can be used with, for example, javascript, for PHP, and python and the like, and so you don't have to actually know how to do these HTTP calls. You just need to know how to use that software development kit, and the documentation for that is, of course, brilliant, and many other AWS services also use the API for communication within the AWS cloud.
API calls to AWS can only be made by authenticated users with valid security credentials. For example, if you're using the management console, you would have been authenticated through your username and password. If you're using the command-line interface application on a remote computer, then you would need to download an access key id and secret and use that for authentication with AWS. If you're using an application on your browser that has been developed using one of the many AWS software development kits, then normally, you would be issued with IAM temporary credentials. So what that means is that this application that you have may use login for Google, may use login for Facebook, or whatever, and it might use your Google account or your Facebook account to authenticate you, and then that will be issuing temporary credentials for you to access the AWS resources through that browser-based application, and finally, we can actually log all of these API calls using the AWS CloudTrail service, so that's great. If we have any security issues or any performance issues, we can go back through those CloudTrail logs and make sure that there's nothing untoward going on there.

A picture tells a thousand words, so how does this all work. Down the bottom there, we've got our AWS cloud that we want to connect to using a remote computer, and so that remote computer will be sending HTTP API calls to the AWS cloud to get information from the AWS cloud, and to issue instructions to the AWS services. So the first way we can do it there is we could have an IAM user and that user will have a username and password, and they can use that username and password to log in to the AWS management console that is running inside of their browser, and the AWS management console running on that remote computer will then issue those API calls to the AWS cloud. The second option there is that we could have an IAM user download IAM credentials in the form of an access key and a secret to go with that access key, and so if that is presented to the AWS command-line interface application that is running on that remote computer that will authenticate that IAM user, and that IAM user will then be able to issue command-line interface commands to the AWS cloud.
And finally, if we've got an external user, so this user doesn't have an AWS account, for example, you might have an application like dropbox for example, and you have millions of users, and it's not practical, or it's actually not even possible to create a million IAM users, so you need to be able to somehow authenticate those users and to allow those users to temporarily access the AWS cloud, so you would use an application that is running using the software development kits and that application could authenticate you using an OAuth authentication service, for example. It could use the AWS Cognito service. It could use Google log in with Google or log in with Facebook to authenticate you, and from that authentication, you will have limited and temporary access through that remote computer to the AWS cloud. Now to start using the command-line interface, the first thing that you need to do is that you need to have an application running on your computer that can allow that to happen, so the AWS standard CLI application it's available for download for Windows, Mac, and Linux, and it allows those API commands to be sent to AWS using the windows command line or a Linux or Mac terminal application. There is also the AWS shell application which is a cross-platform standalone integrated shell environment that is written in Python that can provide even more features and more automation features to the CLI application and finally, we've also got the AWS tools for windows PowerShell so you can run CLI commands within Windows PowerShell and at the same time use all of those automation tools that are available within PowerShell. Now, if you want to have a look at all of those CLI tools that are available, just go to the AWS website, AWS CloudShell is a shell environment that is accessed through the AWS management console. It has the AWS command-line interface application pre-installed. Now this provides significantly increased security as opposed when you use the command line interface application and run that on your remote computer, because when you do that, you need to download and use the IAM credentials. Now when you use AWS CloudShell you are simply logging into the management console. Now you could argue that is just as insecure because you could lose your username and password, but coming up further in the course, we're going to learn about multi-factor authentication that we can apply to our account so that our account cannot be accessed with simply a username or password AWS Cloud9 IDE is an integrated development environment running on an EC2 instance, and you access that through the AWS management console. It also has the AWS CLI application pre-installed, and it also provides that increased security because, again, the IAM credentials are not saved on a remote computer. One advantage that it has over the simple CloudShell is that it also has a tree view of the file structure of that EC2 instance, so if you want to upload files and manipulate those files and maybe put them into a S3 bucket or something like that and you want to do that all with the command line interface, then you can quite simply just do a drag and drop from your Windows Explorer or the Mac equivalent of that. Just drag and drop over to the tree, and those files will be automatically transferred over using SFTP.

AWS Business Case (when to use their services)

6 Advantages of Cloud Computing

AWS defines six advantages of Cloud Computing.
The first one there is that we're going to be trading a capital expense for a variable expense, so in the past, we would have had to put forward a capital expenditure request to management, to purchase these servers, to have them installed, to have them maintained, all of that sort of thing and then by the time we've gone through that process, we may have to go back and redo that all again because we've run out of capacity already. And this way, we're going to be swapping that for a variable expense that is going to be able to react according to our business needs.
Next, we're going to benefit from the massive economies of scale of using this enormous AWS cloud, and those costs that are associated with that AWS cloud are shared amongst millions of users, and so we're not going to be getting a big variation in these costs. It's going to be quite stable over the long term.
Next, we can stop guessing capacity. We're going to have an elastic infrastructure that can vary according to our needs. We don't need to guess our capacity to purchase fixed assets. We are going to be using a service that is going to be able to accommodate our needs into the future.
Next, we are going to be increasing our speed and agility to get our services and products to market quickly. We can launch an infrastructure on AWS within minutes, and we can be up and running in a very short amount of time.
Next, we're going to stop spending money on running and maintaining our data centers on-premises. This is a big one because there are a lot of overhead costs that we may not take into consideration when we're implementing an on-premises solution, and that could be anything from insurance costs, to security costs as far as physical security, it could be electricity, a whole heap of things that go into maintaining and running that data center.
And finally, we can go global in minutes. The AWS cloud has data centers across the globe, and we can launch within any part of the globe within a very short amount of time.

4 key Values for Building a Migration Buisness Case

AWS also defines four key values to use when you're building a business case for migration over to AWS.
The first thing there, of course, is cost savings, you're going to be changing from an upfront capital investment over to a pay as you go pricing model, and that is going to allow you to free up that budget and that cash in that budget you've got now for investment elsewhere.
The next one there is staff productivity. Your staff are no longer going to have to worry about the nuts and bolts of managing physical servers, and those teams of staff can work on higher-value activities such as providing better customer service. Next, your infrastructure will be far more operationally resilient. You can take advantage of the reliability of the AWS global infrastructure that will mean that your network will go down less often and when that it does go down, the use of multiple availability zones means that the time that it goes down will be very short, pretty much instantaneous back up and running, and also AWS has a broad suite of security services that are going to provide the maximum security for your infrastructure.
And finally, business will be more agile because AWS has out of the box solutions that are proven, you can get these deployed with simply the click of a button. For example, if you wanted to create a user account system, you can simply use Cognito, or if you want to have a complicated GraphQL backend for your database deployments, then you can use AWS AppSync, and again, these are out of the box proven and reliable, and you don't have to worry about developing this stuff yourself, and that's going to allow you to come up with very innovative ideas and get them to the market very quickly.

AWS Pricing calculator

The AWS pricing calculator allows us to estimate the monthly and annual costs of using individual AWS service. The first step after opening up the pricing calculator is that we need to select the service that we're going to be using, and there are a number of services there available. Pretty well, the vast range of services that you can get on AWS will be available here on the pricing calculator. After we've selected our service, and we can see here, we've got the EC2 service up. We can start to define what we're going to be using on that EC2 service, so we can define what the instance type is, what the operating system is, and that sort of thing. We've also got the option there of an advanced estimate, and that's going to allow us to put more information. We'll get our estimate, and we can see here, we've got the first 12 months is going to cost us one and a half thousand US dollars. We're going to have a total upfront expenditure there and a monthly cost. So we can save that, and we can share it with other people. We can export it to Microsoft Excel as a CSV file If we like, and so that is a very quick and easy way. If we know what services we're going to be using and how we're going to use them. It's a great way to get a good estimate of what our ongoing costs are going to be. The AWS Price List API. It allows you to programmatically query for the prices of any available AWS services. Using either JSON with the Price List service API, which is also known as the query API or with HTML using the Price List API, which is also known as the bulk API. It can also enable AWS Price List API , so that your application can get alerts when prices for services change. This allows you to create powerful forecasting applications built around the latest AWS services and resources that are available based upon the latest AWS pricing. When you're comparing the costs of running an on-premises data center as opposed to running a virtualized environment on the AWS cloud, you need to take into consideration all of the costs, the total cost of ownership of that solution, or TCO for short. Now TCO , it provides an estimate of all of the expenses that are involved in not only the upfront purchasing but also the operating of that equipment all of the overheads involved in operating the equipment over its entire life cycle.
There are four main cost centers involved within the
total cost of ownership model. The first one there is server costs, then storage costs, network costs, and finally the IT labor costs. Within server costs, we're going to have the cost of that physical server, but we're also going to have the cost of software and any licensing and maintenance of that software that may be required.
Within storage again, we're going to have that hardware cost, but we're also going to have a storage administrative costs. Are there backup costs involved in that, do we need to have backup software involved within that storage cost as well.
We also have network costs, so we're going to have our network, our internet, our local era network, we're going to have load balancing, but we're also going to have network administration costs involved as well.
And finally our IT labor cost for server administration, for virtualization as well, so not only are we going to have people that are going to be experts in managing the physical hardware, but we also have may need to have people that are also experts in looking after VMware solutions as well, and within those first three of server storage and network costs, those physical costs. Running those are going to incur an overhead cost as well. They're going to require space, they're going to require somewhere to store those servers, they're going to have to have power, and they're also going to need to be called as well, so we need to make sure that those overhead costs are included as well.
The AWS Migration Evaluator,
which was formerly called TSO Logic, is a complimentary service to create data-driven business cases for migration from on-premises data centers over to the AWS cloud. The way it works is it will monitor your existing on-premise systems, and it will collect that data, and it will look at the cost involved in that, and it will automatically allow you to build a very complex business case for migration over to AWS. The way the Migration Evaluator works is that a server will be set up on your on-premise data center and that will collect information from your systems, be it VMware, Hyper-V, whatever it may be. It will collect data in real-time from those servers that you've got on-premises, and then it will store that data that has been collected in a MongoDB database, and that data will then be used to create these data packages, and those will then be uploaded to the AWS cloud into an Amazon S3 bucket. Once that's done, you can go into the Migration Evaluator, and you can fetch a report that will compare all of the costs, the total cost of ownership of your existing on-premise solution based on this data that has been collected, and any other information on costs that you have been providing, and it will compare that to the cost involved of that same solution on the AWS cloud. Another good tool that you can use in the early stages of selling a migration solution to your senior management is to use the
Cloud Adoption Readiness Tool or CART for short, and this is a very quick online survey where you can complete 16 questions, and then an assessment report will be generated for you, and that will detail your organization's readiness for a cloud migration across six perspectives, and those have been business, people, process, platform, operations, and security.
AWS, they define some best practices to achieve a successful cloud migration. The first one there, is to make sure that the stakeholders and your senior management or senior leaders are aligned. Now, this may require you to inform and educate your senior management on what your stakeholder requirements are, and making sure that everyone understands what all of the key stakeholders need to get out of this migration, and this is very important when you're dealing with senior leaders who may not be part of the IT department. Getting them to understand all of the stakeholder needs and what you're trying to do to achieve this solution that provides that for them will ensure that decisions are made quickly without any conflict.
The next one there is to set top-down quantifiable goals, and these need to be clearly defined with clear objectives that can be measured and are quantifiable. It's no point having something that is very wishy-washy. You need to have something that is clear and direct and can be quantifiable in the end, and then you can expand from that and introduce more specific goals and more specific tasks that are involved to achieve your end.
Next, we need to trust the process. AWS has been in this business for a very long time, and they are the biggest player around. And their processes for migration are the best, and that involves assessing where you currently are, and where you want to get to, and creating a mobilization plan to achieve that, then implementing that migration and taking advantage of any opportunities to innovate and modernize your architecture.
Next, within your migration process, you need to make sure that you choose the right migration pattern, and there are seven Rs to achieve that.
So the first one there is to refractor, and that involves the most amount of effort, and that is going to completely redesign your entire architecture and all of the underlying infrastructure that is involved within that.
The next option there is to re-platform. For example, going from, for example, Windows Server to Linux going from Oracle database over to Aurora database.
The next option there is to re-purchase, so to do what you're currently doing, but re-purchase, so if you've got a file server, simply re-purchase an upgraded version of that file server. The next option there is to re-host, and that is a lift and ship, so you're going to look at what you've got existing there now and simply move that to another location.
The next one there is to relocate your virtual infrastructure, so that could be on VMware or Hyper-V and allowing that to move from one location to the other. It could be to AWS or could be to another physical server, for example.
Next, we can simply retain what we've got and do nothing, and finally, we can simply retire the entire system. We don't need it anymore, and we can get rid of it. When you're developing your migration plan, it's a good idea to go to the AWS prescriptive guidance website , and that's located at the, and what that is, it's a portal of a whole heap of PDF documents that contain time tested strategies, guides, and patterns from both AWS and AWS partners that can help you accelerate cloud migration, modernization, or optimization projects. So, for example, if you've got a migration job where you want to migrate from Microsoft SQL Server to the AWS cloud, what you can do is search for that on the prescriptive guidance website. You will find no doubt, a PDF document that will detail the process that you need to go through, and also any of the issues that you may encounter, and that's going to help you to produce a much better migration plan.
Another great way of reducing those costs of IT labor and resources is to use an expert system such as the Amazon Inspector , and what that is, it's an automated security assessment service, so instead of having a team of people going through your AWS infrastructure and identifying any weaknesses or opportunities within that. The Amazon Inspector can do that automatically for you, and that allows you to reduce the costs and increases the efficiency of conducting security assessments and maintaining compliance with any third-party compliance programs. The pricing starts at 30 cents per agent assessment per month, but if you're using it quite a bit, you can take advantage of volume discounting, and that will allow you to achieve as low as 5 cents per agent assessment per month. So the Amazon Inspector a great service to really identify any critical areas within your infrastructure and also any areas of opportunity, not only in security but also in performance as well.
The AWS Compliance Program covers a very broad range of certifications, laws and regulations, and frameworks that AWS is compliance with or can help you to become compliant with. For example there, we've got ISO 9000, we've got the payment card industry data security standard as well that AWS is compliant with, we've got the HIPAA standard there that AWS can help you to become compliant with as well. One thing that you need to understand is that AWS may be compliant with a standard, or it may be providing a compliance enabling service that can enable you to be compliant with a standard. A good example of that for a compliant service would be PCI DSS Level 1. AWS is compliant with that standard. ISO 9001 again, AWS is fully compliant with that standard as well. Another compliance enabling service that AWS provides is for the HIPAA standard, and the reason that AWS cannot provide you with a HIPAA certification as such, is because the HIPAA standard goes into much more than just your back end services. For example, you may have a HIPAA application, some software that you have developed, and that is running on AWS, and the AWS side of things is completely compliant, but your actual software may have issues, and it may not be compliant, and so from that perspective, AWS has provided everything that they can for you to enable compliance, but you still need to do your end of it to to get that HIPAA certification.
AWS Artifact is a central resource for compliance-related information on AWS. It provides on-demand access to AWS's security and compliance reports and also selected online agreements. Some of the reports you can download include SOC or PCI reports and those are accessed quite simply by going to the AWS management console, and selecting the report that you want or searching for that report, and then selecting it, and then downloading that report. Okay, so when you go to the management console and select AWS Artifact , you can go to the report section, you can search on a report, and so here we have, we are searching for the PCI reports, and we can see there, that we've got one. A PCI attestation of compliance or AOC report. We simply select that, and we download that report. When we click on download report, it will actually not download the report itself, but it will download the non-disclosure agreement for AWS Artifact and attach to that. If you open it in Adobe Acrobat and you click on the paper clip. You can see that attached to that will be the reports that you want, and by clicking on those links, you will be able to see those reports, and download those, or print them out, or do whatever you want with those. It is one thing to be compliant with a standard at a point in time, and it's another thing to be able to maintain compliance with that standard when your infrastructure is changing, and your software is being updated, and so that's where AWS Config comes in, and what it is, it's a configuration management service running on AWS and allows you to assess, audit, and evaluate the configurations of your AWS resources. It achieves this by continuously monitoring and recording any changes in your configuration on AWS based on pre-built rules. Now, those rules are supplied by AWS, but you can modify those to suit you as well. Those rules can be applied to both network and software configurations, so if you do an update to software and that change is something to do with compliance based on those rules, then that will you will be alerted to that change. Multiple rules can be organized into a conformance pack to better organize these rules, and any changes that appear can be identified quickly by simply going to the AWS management console, and going to the cloud governance dashboard, and seeing those changes. It has multi-account and multi-region data integration, and so you can apply this across multiple accounts across multiple regions. It is integrated with AWS Organizations, so you can set up a Conformance of PAC and apply that to all of your accounts within your organization. There are a number of different support plans available from AWS to help you out when you get into trouble that consists of a basic developer business and the top of the line there is enterprise, and they vary from free, and that is purely and simply, customer service only. There's no technical service, so if you've got a problem with your billing, for example, then you can get free support on that, but if you want to get technical support, then you're going to have to pay for that, and so developer is the, the base of that support plan for pay plans and that's going to give you up to 12 hours response to critical failures. Working up to enterprise, which is 24/7 technical support from a senior engineer and that will have response to less than 15 minutes to any critical failures. From my experience, personally with AWS support is that these response times that they quote, for the most part, they do deliver on, but quite often they don't deliver on so again, if you've got an enterprise there and it's saying less than 15 minutes response, it may take them a lot longer than 15 minutes to actually sort out your problem, but it is a very good service to pay for, and certainly if you're part of a large organization, you certainly should have at the very least a business support plan. If you want to get more details about these support plans, go to AWS website. If you have a difficult application that you're trying to deploy on AWS, you may want to consider using the AWS Professional Services, and they are a global team of AWS experts. They work as a collaboration between the client and an AWS Partner Network or an APN partner and the AWS Professional Services team, so if you've got this large application that you want to deploy, then you would engage an APN partner, and then the APN partner would work with the AWS, Professional Services team to sort out all of those issues for you. The Professional Services use a number of different offerings that use a unique methodology based on Amazon's internal best practices, and they help you to complete your projects faster and more reliably. The Professional Services can provide experts in a specific area of AWS, and they have global specialty practices that can support your efforts in focused areas of the enterprise cloud computing. For example, you might want to obtain the services of a machine learning expert or an internet of things, or a specific database expert, and AWS Professional Services can make that happen for you. AWS Managed Services consist of AWS cloud experts, and they can provide help with migrating, and operations assistance, such as with monitoring of incidences, with security, with patch management, and that sort of thing. These AMS cloud experts work alongside AWS partners and also with your own operations teams. It leverages a growing library of automations, configurations, and run books for many use cases, and by doing that, it provides enhanced security and cost optimization, because the AWS Managed Services are going to make sure that you are operating with AWS best practices. If ever there was a good reason for getting certified with AWS. AWS IQ for experts has to be the best. It's a marketplace for people that are AWS certified, so you need to have an active AWS certification. It has to be at the minimum of an associate-level, so it needs to be either an associate professional or specialty certification, and it enables you to get paid for work that you complete for customers within their AWS account. Now it's not available in all countries. It was first rolled out only in the U.S, and so to use that service, you need to have U.S tax details and a U.S bank account, but it is currently being rolled out to other countries as well. If you want to find out more about AWS IQ for experts, go to the How it works is that you first create a profile, which will have all of your details, your photo, your certifications, and qualifications. Once that profile is up, that's going to enable you to connect with customers and communicate directly with customers. If a customer is interested in anything that you have to offer, then you can start a proposal and send that out to the customer. If the customer accepts that proposal, you can then work securely with that customer inside of their customer account with limited IAM privileges. When the work is has been completed, then, of course, you will get paid for that work, so it's a great way to get started in AWS and start earning money from that very valuable certification that you've gained.

AWS Architecture and compliance

AWS Architecture center provides reference architecture diagrams, vetted architecture solutions, Well-Architected best practices, patterns, icons, and more.

These examples are very complex and detailed, and most of these are in PDF format and define and describe the architecture for you to implement. Now some of these also have a GitHub repository, and that includes a CloudFormation template, and that will allow you to launch these very complex architectures yourself simply by clicking a button.

Wrodpress example

All the code here is deployed from a CloudFormation template

AWS also provides us with sample repos for the full setup: Repo Link

Cloudformation uses YAML templates to define the configuration of the infrastructure.

Now, up until now, we have been installing or launching WordPress instances as a single instance, and that single instance contains the file storage for all of our media files, being our pictures, our documents, our videos, anything that we're going to be using within that WordPress application and also that single instance will contain the MySQL database as well. The problem that creates when we go to an auto-scaling multi-instance environment is that because the database and the file server are not centrally located, each one of those instances will have a different copy or a different version of that data, so when a new instance is launched, that will not have any of the data that is in another instance, and so every time that a customer comes through the load balancer and gets directed to an instance, it will be totally different experience the next time they go to the load balancer and get directed to a different instance, so we need a way of centrally managing all of our media files and all of our data.
So here we can see, we've got an Amazon EFS Share that has been created, and that will centrally cut locate all of that media storage, and we have an EFS mount target so those WordPress instances can access all of that data, all of those media files that are in that EFS share. And so that solves that problem for our media files, then we look at our database, so we no longer have the database located on our individual instances. The database is now on Amazon Aurora, and it also has a read replica which is going to help for durability and for speed for our read requests. So now, all of a sudden, our data is also centrally located, so any new instances that are launched, they will be using that same data and the same media storage as well. So of course, to do that all yourself is going to be quite difficult, so it's certainly something to consider is to go to those, if you're going to install something like this to search for it as a starting point at the very least and get those best practices sorted out.

AWS Well architected framework

To just close out of this, and here we can see, we've got the AWS Well-Architected Framework , and that helps you to build architecture around AWS best practices. It provides a framework for you to work in. It's very high level. It's very generic, and it's not prescriptive as such, but it does get you thinking in the right areas. So let's have a look at that. So what it's built around are five pillars of excellence being operational excellence, security, reliability, performance efficiency, and cost optimization.
So when we talk about operational excellence, we need to make sure that we've got our processes designed like we would have in any other good business process. We need to make sure that our architecture is implemented as code. We're using CloudFormation templates or something like that. That defines our architecture and has version control around that architecture. We're taking advantage of automation to streamline and to reduce waste, just the same as we would with any other good business process.
Security, making sure users are granted least privilege. In other words, they only have access to the minimum that they need. Implementing CloudTrail to track user activity and CloudWatch to alert us to any issues.
Creating a VPC architecture that is robust and has multiple layers of security. Reliability, implementing a highly available and fault-tolerant architecture that can respond to demand both long-term demand and spikes in demand. Performance efficiency, making sure that we're getting the most out of those resources. They're not sitting around doing nothing. We don't have EC2 instances and EBS volumes that we're paying for, and we're not using, and finally, we've got Cost Optimization, making sure that we get the right solution for our budget. It's no point designing something that's massive and complicated and expensive if it's just not going to be economical to do that. We might be able to go to a lower-cost solution, such as designing a static website using CloudFront, rather than having large servers that cost a great deal of money. Now to help us along the way, there's actually an
AWS Well Architected Tool , and there's a link to it up here. So i'll just open that up now. How it works, is again, we go through those five pillars of excellence, and it will ask you a series of questions, and it's a bit like a benchmarking process. It helps you to identify where you are now and what you need to do to achieve AWS best practices. You define your workload first, and then you'll go through, and you'll answer all of these questions relating to the five pillars. Once you've done that, you can save that as a milestone, and then you can come back when you fixed up all of the issues that have been identified And then go back and redo the architected tool, put in another milestone until you get to the point where you're completely satisfied, that you've taken into consideration everything of this Well-Architected Framework and that you're satisfied that you're achieving AWS best practices, and then you can print out a report, and that is great for going to clients and saying well look, this is what we've taken into consideration with your architecture, and we've come up with a solution that is based upon AWS best practices on a number of different areas, and this is what we have come up with, so it's not only a great design tool. It's also a great marketing tool as well.
Okay, so we've got these great tools.